https://www.interactions.org/ en BOREXINO Achieves the First Experimental Test of How Massive Stars Shine https://www.interactions.org/press-release/borexino-achieves-first-experimental-test-how-massive-stars BOREXINO Achieves the First Experimental Test of How Massive Stars ShinePress Release<span><span lang="" about="/users/xeno" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">xeno</span></span> Wed, 11/25/2020 - 09:324120<div class="pr-body"><p><i>The results were obtained in Italy, at the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratories, by an international scientific collaboration</i></p><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="58b98343-617c-48b1-9dba-7baf7d072196" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=52am9dw6 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=52am9dw6 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=52am9dw6 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=52am9dw6 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=52am9dw6 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=52am9dw6 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=52am9dw6 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=52am9dw6 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=kuA_G8QW 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=kuA_G8QW 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=kuA_G8QW 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=6VV1yM0P 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=6VV1yM0P 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=kuA_G8QW 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=TttwUY8O 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=TttwUY8O 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=TttwUY8O 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/VolkerSTEGER_Borexino.jpg?itok=hhmoQ2-3" alt="BOREXINO ACHIEVES THE FIRST EXPERIMENTAL TEST OF HOW MASSIVE STARS SHINE" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture></article></div><p>The Borexino scientific collaboration, an experiment at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), publishes today, November 25th in Nature the announcement of the first ever detection of neutrinos produced in the Sun by the CNO cycle (carbon-nitrogen-oxygen). It is an experimental result of historical value, which completes a chapter of physics that started in the 1930 decade of the last century. The implication of this new measure for understanding stellar mechanisms is enormous: in fact, since the CNO cycle is predominant in the most massive stars than the Sun, with this observation Borexino has reached the experimental evidence of what is in fact the dominant channel in the universe for hydrogen burning.</p><p>Previously Borexino had already studied in detail the main mechanism of energy production in the Sun, the proton-proton chain, through the individual detection of all neutrino fluxes that originate from it. Now, by measuring the neutrinos produced by the CNO cycle, which is present in the Sun at 1% level, Borexino provides the first experimental evidence of the existence of this additional energy generation mechanism. </p><p>"Now we finally have the first groundbreaking, experimental confirmation of how the stars, heaviest than the Sun, shine" points out Gianpaolo Bellini, professor at the University of Milan and INFN researcher, one of the founding fathers of the experiment and spokesperson of Borexino for 22 years. Bellini led the group of researchers and technicians of the University of Milan (La Statale) and of the INFN division of Milan that exactly 30 years ago started the conception of the experiment.</p><p>"This is the culmination of a thirty years long effort, which began in 1990, and of more than ten years of Borexino's discoveries in the physics of the Sun, neutrinos and finally stars," Bellini concludes. Since 1990 the Milan group played a key role in the design and construction of the detector, with a contribution from the University of Princeton, and afterwards with the INFN groups of Genoa, Gran Sasso, Perugia, within the international collaboration</p><p>Solar neutrinos can only be observed with highly sensitive detectors, which can exclude most sources of background signals. To achieve the required sensitivity, the Borexino experiment was built with an onion-like design, characterized by layers of increasing radiopurity, making it a unique detector in the world for the ultra-low background level achieved, never obtained by any other experiment. In addition, the depth of the experimental Hall of the Gran Sasso Underground Labs protects it from cosmic radiation, with the exception of neutrinos that pass through Earth matter undisturbed.</p><p>Measuring the neutrinos of the CNO cycle was a complicated task that required a great deal of effort in both hardware and software. "Despite the exceptional successes previously achieved and an already ultra-pure detector, - explains Gioacchino Ranucci, researcher of the INFN section of Milan, current co-spokesperson of Borexino - we had to work hard to further improve the suppression and understanding of the very low residual backgrounds, so that we could identify the neutrinos of the CNO cycle." </p><p>"The detection of neutrinos produced in the CNO cycle announced by Borexino is the crowning of a relentless, years-long effort that has led us to push the liquid-scintillator technology beyond any previously reached limit, and to make Borexino's core the least radioactive place in the world," comments Marco Pallavicini, professor at the University of Genoa and member of the INFN Executive Board, currently co-spokesperson for the experiment.</p><p> </p><p><b>An 80 year long history</b></p><p>The existence of the CNO cycle was first theorized in 1938, when scientists Hans Bethe and Carl Friedrich von Weizsacker independently proposed that the fusion of hydrogen in stars could also be catalyzed by the heavy nuclei carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, in a cyclical series of nuclear reactions, in addition to proceeding according to the sequence of the proton-proton chain.</p><p>Despite indirect evidence from astronomical and astrophysical observations, direct experimental confirmation of the hypothesized stellar energy generation mechanism could not be easily obtained. The attempts to unveil it focused on neutrinos, particles produced in abundance in these reactions, leading to the start-up, in the 1960s, of the Solar Neutrino scientific program, which originated results of great importance for particle physics. </p><p>With this measure, Borexino, who is nearing the conclusion of his scientific activity, after demonstrating how the Sun shines, also leaves the neutrino field with the enduring legacy of the first observation of CNO neutrinos, a revolutionary achievement obtained through an impressive experimental effort, which will remain for the future as one of the fundamental successes of astrophysics and astroparticle physics.</p><p>In the course of this fascinating enterprise of unravelling the mysteries of the Sun and stars, which lasted almost a century, solar neutrinos were also instrumental in identifying the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation, one of the greatest discoveries of particle physics of the new millennium. </p><p><strong>Press contacts</strong></p><p>INFN Communications office<br /> Antonella Varaschin<br /><a href="mailto:antonella.varaschin@presid.infn.it">antonella.varaschin@presid.infn.it</a>,<br /> +39.349.5384481</p><p>Eleonora Cossi<br /><a href="mailto:eleonora.cossi@presid.infn.it">eleonora.cossi@presid.infn.it</a>,<br /> +39.345.2954623</p><p>Università degli Studi di Milano <br /> Press office<br /><a href="mailto:ufficiostampa@unimi.it">ufficiostampa@unimi.it</a><br /> Anna Cavagna – Glenda Mereghetti – Chiara Vimercati</p><p>tel. +39 02 50312983 - Cell. 3346866587</p></div><div class="source"><div id="main" class="with-elements"><div class="hero"><div><div><div class="block-region-hero"><h1> INFN-LNGS </h1></div></div></div></div><div class="main"><div class="main-top"><div class="block-region-maintop"></div></div><div class="element"><div class="block-region-main"><div class="institution-body"><p>Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) is one of the four national laboratories of <a href="http://www.infn.it/index.php?lang=en" target="_blank">INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics)</a>.</p><p>The other laboratories of INFN are based in <a href="http://www.lns.infn.it/" target="_blank">Catania</a>, <a href="http://w3.lnf.infn.it/index.php?lang=it" target="_blank">Frascati</a> (Rome) and <a href="http://www.lnl.infn.it" target="_blank">Legnaro</a> (Padua); the whole network of laboratories house large equipment and infrastructures available for use by the national and international scientific community.</p><p>The <a href="http://www.infn.it/index.php?lang=en" target="_blank">National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN)</a> is the Italian research agency dedicated to the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws that govern them, under the supervision of the <a href="http://www.gssi.infn.it/" target="_blank">Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR)</a>. It conducts theoretical and experimental research in the fields of subnuclear, nuclear and astroparticle physics.</p><p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Contact Information</strong><br /> Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso<br /> Strada Statale 17/bis Km 18+910&nbsp;<br /> I-67010 Assergi (L'Aquila)<br /> Italy<br /> + 39 0862 4371 Media contact<br /> Roberta Antolini<br /> + 39 0862 437216<br /><a href="mailto:Roberta.antolini@lngs.infn.it">Roberta.antolini@lngs.infn.it</a><br /><br /> &nbsp;</p></div><a href="http://www.lngs.infn.it/en" target="_blank">http://www.lngs.infn.it/en</a><div class="institution-contactinfo"><label>Contact Info</label><p>INFN Communications office</p><p>Antonella Varaschin, <a href="mailto:antonella.varaschin@presid.infn.it">antonella.varaschin@presid.infn.it</a>, +39.349.5384481</p><p>Eleonora Cossi, <a href="mailto:eleonora.cossi@presid.infn.it">eleonora.cossi@presid.infn.it</a>, +39.345.2954623</p></div><div class="institution-links"><label>Links</label><ul class="links"><li><a href="http://www.linkedin.com/companies/infn" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">LinkedIn</a></li><li><a href="http://www.infn.it/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Funding - INFN</a></li></ul></div></div></div></div></div> Wed, 25 Nov 2020 15:32:38 +0000 xeno 15040 at https://www.interactions.org A hint of new physics in polarized radiation from the early Universe https://www.interactions.org/press-release/hint-new-physics-polarized-radiation-early-universe A hint of new physics in polarized radiation from the early UniversePress Release<span><span lang="" about="/users/xeno" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">xeno</span></span> Wed, 11/25/2020 - 08:514020<div class="pr-body"><p>Using Planck data from the cosmic microwave background radiation, an international team of researchers has observed a hint of new physics. The team developed a new method to measure the polarization angle of the ancient light by calibrating it with dust emission from our own Milky Way. While the signal is not detected with enough precision to draw definite conclusions, it may suggest that dark matter or dark energy causes a violation of the so-called “parity symmetry.”</p><p>The laws of physics governing the Universe are thought not to change when flipped around in a mirror. For example, electromagnetism works the same regardless of whether you are in the original system, or in a mirrored system in which all spatial coordinates have been flipped. If this symmetry, called “parity,” is violated, it may hold the key to understanding the elusive nature of dark matter and dark energy, which occupy 25 and 70 percent of the energy budget of the Universe today, respectively. While both dark, these two components have opposite effects on the evolution of the Universe: dark matter attracts, while dark energy causes the Universe to expand ever faster.</p><p>A new study, including researchers from the Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU) of the University of Tokyo, and the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), reports on a tantalizing hint of new physics—with 99.2 percent confidence level —which violates parity symmetry. Their findings were published in the journal Physical Review Letters on November 23, 2020; the paper was selected as the “Editors’ Suggestion,” judged by editors of the journal to be important, interesting, and well written.</p><p>The hint to a violation of parity symmetry was found in the cosmic microwave background radiation, the remnant light of the Big Bang. The key is the polarized light of the cosmic microwave background. Light is a propagating electromagnetic wave. When it consists of waves oscillating in a preferred direction, physicists call it “polarized.” The polarization arises when the light is scattered. Sunlight, for instance, consists of waves with all possible oscillating directions; thus, it is not polarized. The light of a rainbow, meanwhile, is polarized because the sunlight is scattered by water droplets in the atmosphere. Similarly, the light of the cosmic microwave background initially became polarized when scattered by electrons 400,000 years after the Big Bang. As this light traveled through the Universe for 13.8 billion years, the interaction of the cosmic microwave background with dark matter or dark energy could cause the plane of polarization to rotate by an angle β (Figure).</p><p>“If dark matter or dark energy interact with the light of the cosmic microwave background in a way that violates parity symmetry, we can find its signature in the polarization data,” points out Yuto Minami, a postdoctoral fellow at IPNS, KEK.</p><p>To measure the rotation angle β, the scientists needed polarization-sensitive detectors, such as those onboard the Planck satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA). And they needed to know how the polarization-sensitive detectors are oriented relative to the sky. If this information was not known with sufficient precision, the measured polarization plane would appear to be rotated artificially, creating a false signal. In the past, uncertainties over the artificial rotation introduced by the detectors themselves limited the measurement accuracy of the cosmic polarization angle β.</p><p>“We developed a new method to determine the artificial rotation using the polarized light emitted by dust in our Milky Way,” said Minami. “With this method, we have achieved a precision that is twice that of the previous work, and are finally able to measure β.” The distance traveled by the light from dust within the Milky Way is much shorter than that of the cosmic microwave background. This means that the dust emission is not affected by dark matter or dark energy, i.e. β is present only in the light of the cosmic microwave background, while the artificial rotation affects both. The difference in the measured polarization angle between both sources of light can thus be used to measure β.</p><p>The research team applied the new method to measure β from the polarization data taken by the Planck satellite. They found a hint for violation of parity symmetry with 99.2 percent confidence level. To claim a discovery of new physics, much greater statistical significance, or a confidence level of 99.99995 percent, is required. Eiichiro Komatsu, director at the MPA and Principal Investigator at the Kavli IPMU, said: “It is clear that we have not found definitive evidence for new physics yet; higher statistical significance is needed to confirm this signal. But we are excited because our new method finally allowed us to make this ‘impossible’ measurement, which may point to new physics.”</p><p>To confirm this signal, the new method can be applied to any of the existing— and future—experiments measuring polarization of the cosmic microwave background, such as Simons Array and LiteBIRD, in which both KEK and the Kavli IPMU are involved.</p><figure role="group" class="embedded-entity align-center"><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="184f4fe4-1360-406f-af1b-93fcdd9ecbbb" data-langcode="en"><article><picture><source media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=iLcGfDo0 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=iLcGfDo0 1.5x" type="image/png"></source><source media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=iLcGfDo0 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=iLcGfDo0 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=iLcGfDo0 2x" type="image/png"></source><source media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=iLcGfDo0 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=iLcGfDo0 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=iLcGfDo0 2x" type="image/png"></source><source media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=KFxGCWxV 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=KFxGCWxV 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=KFxGCWxV 2x" type="image/png"></source><source media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=TcapsFk4 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=TcapsFk4 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=KFxGCWxV 2x" type="image/png"></source><source media="all and (max-width: 399px)" srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=4zQfzrHN 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=4zQfzrHN 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=4zQfzrHN 2x" type="image/png"></source><img alt="A hint of new physics in polarized radiation from the early Universe" src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/hintofphysics.png?itok=fppxYl4D" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture></article></div><figcaption>As the light of the cosmic microwave background emitted 13.8 billion years ago (left image) travels through the Universe until observed on Earth (right image), the direction in which the electromagnetic wave oscillates (orange line) is rotated by an angle β. The rotation could be caused by dark matter or dark energy interacting with the light of the cosmic microwave background, which changes the patterns of polarization (black lines inside the images). The red and blue regions in the images show hot and cold regions of the cosmic microwave background, respectively. Credit: Y. Minami / KEK</figcaption></figure><p> </p><p><strong>Paper details: </strong></p><p><strong>Journal: </strong>Physical Review Letters</p><p><strong>Title:</strong> New extraction of the cosmic birefringence from the Planck 2018 polarization data</p><p><strong>Authors:</strong> Yuto Minami (1), Eiichiro Komatsu (2,3)</p><p><strong>Author affiliation:</strong></p><ol><li>High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801, Japan
</li><li>Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582, Japan
</li><li>Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, 85741 Garching, Germany
</li></ol><p><strong>URL: </strong><a href=" https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.221301">https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.221301 </a><br /><strong>DOI:</strong> 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.221301</p><p><strong>Research contact:</strong> </p><p>Yuto Minami<br /> Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK, Japan)<br /> Postdoctoral Fellow<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:yminami@post.kek.jp">yminami@post.kek.jp</a><br /><br /> Eiichiro Komatsu <br /> Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe,The University of Tokyo
Principal Investigator Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics Director of the Department of Physical Cosmology<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de">komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de</a><br /> TEL: + 49-89-30000-2208<br /><br /><strong>Media contact:</strong><br /><br /> Hajime Hikino<br /> PR office, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK, Japan)<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de">press@kek.jp</a><br /> TEL: +81-29-879-6047<br /><br /> Hiroko Tada<br /> PR office, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK, Japan)<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:htada@post.kek.jp">htada@post.kek.jp</a><br /> TEL: +81-29-864-5638</p><p>John Amari<br /> Press officer  Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:htada@post.kek.jp">press@ipmu.jp</a><br /> TEL: 080-4056-2767</p><p>Hannelore Hämmerle <br /> Press Officer  Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics<br /> E-mail: <a href="mailto:pr@mpa-garching.mpg.de">pr@mpa-garching.mpg.de</a> <br /> Tel: +49 89 30000 3980</p></div><div class="source"><div id="main" class="with-elements"><div class="hero"><div><div><div class="block-region-hero"><h1> High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) </h1></div></div></div></div><div class="main"><div class="main-top"><div class="block-region-maintop"><div class="header-image"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=B0OogqCP 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=B0OogqCP 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=B0OogqCP 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=DdEBnkxX 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=DdEBnkxX 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=B0OogqCP 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=Qxr5sIgx 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=Qxr5sIgx 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=Qxr5sIgx 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"/><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=w3BsumW1" alt="Render of International Linear Collider - Next-generation particle accelerator (Courtesy: Rey.Hori/KEK)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture></article></div></div></div><div class="element"><div class="block-region-main"><div class="institution-body"><p><span class="caps">KEK </span>was established in 1997 in a reorganization of the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo (established in 1955), the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (established in 1971), and the Meson Science Laboratory of the University of Tokyo (established in 1988).</p><p>Scientists at <span class="caps">KEK </span>use accelerators and perform research in high-energy physics to answer the most basic questions about the universe as a whole, and the matter and the life it contains.</p><p>&nbsp;</p></div><div class="institution-address"><label>Address</label><p class="address" translate="no"><span class="organization">KEK, Japan</span><br><span class="address-line1">1-1, Oho</span><br><span class="locality">Tsukuba</span>, <span class="administrative-area">Ibaraki</span><br><span class="postal-code">305-0801</span><br><span class="country">Japan</span></p></div><p class="phone"> + 81 029-879-6047  </p> , <p class="phone"> + 81 029-879-6049 (fax) </p><a href="http://www.kek.jp/en/" target="_blank">http://www.kek.jp/en/</a><div class="institution-contactinfo"><label>Contact Info</label><p>High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)<br /> Public Relation Office, Head<br /> Hajime Hikino<br /> E-mail:<a href="mailto:press@mail.kek.jp">press@mail.kek.jp</a></p></div><div class="institution-links"><label>Links</label><ul class="links"><li><a href="https://www.facebook.com/KEK.JP/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Facebook</a></li><li><a href="https://twitter.com/kek_en" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Twitter</a></li><li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/KEKphysics" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">YouTube</a></li></ul></div></div></div></div></div> Wed, 25 Nov 2020 14:51:12 +0000 xeno 15039 at https://www.interactions.org Why Does Titanium Alloy Beam Window Become Brittle After Proton Beam Exposure https://www.interactions.org/press-release/why-does-titanium-alloy-beam-window-become-brittle-after Why Does Titanium Alloy Beam Window Become Brittle After Proton Beam ExposurePress Release<span><span lang="" about="/users/xeno" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">xeno</span></span> Mon, 11/09/2020 - 12:103920<div class="pr-body"><h2>Research and Development on the Accelerator Target and Beam Window Materials<br /> by RaDIATE International Collaboration</h2><h3 class="text-align-right"> </h3><div style="border: solid; border-color: #efefef;padding:1em"><p>Highlights of the Achievement</p><ul><li>A high-strength titanium alloy Ti-6AI-4V is widely employed as the “beam window” at high-intensity proton accelerator facilities, such as FNAL and J-PARC. However, this alloy suffers from radiation- induced hardening and loss of ductility after proton beam exposure. It is urgent to clarify the source of this degradation in mechanical properties to achieve stable high-intensity beam operations at these facilities, aiming to validate leptonic CP-violation by conducting long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.</li><li>An international collaboration conducted high-intensity proton beam exposure on various accelerator target and beam window materials, followed by post-irradiation examinations with state-of-the-art analytical equipment. As a result, it has been clarified that in Ti-6AI-4V, a high density of nanoscale defect clusters in the primary alpha Ti phase lead to extreme hardening and loss of ductility, further exacerbated by the evolution of a high density of small “omega phase” particles in the beta phase. These observations suggest that defects in the alpha phase are most likely responsible for the observed radiation hardening, as demonstrated in other metallic systems after moderately low irradiation temperature proton or neutron irradiation. The formation and growth of radiation-induced high- density omega phase precipitates, first observed in this study in proton-irradiated Ti-base alloys, is worthy of further investigation to clarify their role in mechanical property degradation.</li><li>Understanding the sources of radiation hardening in Ti-6Al-4V and other alloys will guide the final choice of alloy grade and proper heat-treatment method to allow for the next-generation beam window to withstand the high-intensity proton beam operation. It may also be beneficial for the development of new radiation damage-tolerant materials for fusion reactors and accelerator-driven nuclear transmutation systems.</li></ul></div><p>  </p><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="embedded" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="d903c029-5ee8-4169-a931-ce6daa069867" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-1.png?itok=6APZnEL0 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-1.png?itok=smHIHJAe 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-1.png?itok=smHIHJAe 2x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-1.png?itok=smHIHJAe 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-1.png?itok=smHIHJAe 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-1.png?itok=6APZnEL0 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-1.png?itok=6APZnEL0 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-1.png?itok=6APZnEL0 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_tablet_/public/fig-1.png?itok=92sPAMub 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_tablet_/public/fig-1.png?itok=92sPAMub 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_small_phone/public/fig-1.png?itok=-ShnDqJk 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_small_phone/public/fig-1.png?itok=-ShnDqJk 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_phone/public/fig-1.png?itok=2DbLxd28 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/png"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_phone/public/fig-1.png?itok=2DbLxd28" alt="1-crop" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>Figure 1:(Left) The“beam window” is a thin wall separating the accelerator from the target station. High intensity proton beams, accelerated towards the target, are repeatedly injected through the beam window. (Right) The beam window at the J-PARC neutrino experimental facility, fabricated from high-strength titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V (Copyright: STFC RAL).</em></p></div></article></div><p> </p><p>The large-scale proton accelerator facilities around the world, such as Femi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) at Illinois, U.S.A. and Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) at Tokai- village, Ibaraki-prefecture, Japan, accelerate proton beams and collide them with target materials (referred to as “irradiation”). The collisions produce particles, such as neutrinos, hadrons, neutrons, and muons, which are subsequently used for research into elementary particle and nuclear physics, material and life sciences, and for the development of fusion reactors and accelerator-driven nuclear transmutation systems. The accelerator operates under vacuum to lower the probability of scattering the accelerated protons by air molecules. The target is situated inside of a helium-filled or nitrogen-filled chamber referred to as the target station that must be separated from the accelerator chamber by a thin metal membrane referred to as the “beam window” (Fig.1). The beam window is repeatedly exposed to a high-intensity proton beam accelerated towards the target, subjecting the metal window to instantaneous thermal shocks that create pressure waves.</p><p>For the beam window, thin, lightweight materials are chosen to minimize the deposited energy and subsequent heating, and high strength is desired to withstand the repeated thermal shocks. However, when beam windows and target materials are exposed to the proton beam, atomic displacements (referred to as “radiation damage”) occur that knock atoms and clusters of atoms from their atomic lattice sites in metals. Radiation damage is a serious problem that degrades the mechanical properties of the material, and depending on the temperature, can cause dimensional changes due to void swelling and accumulation of defects.</p><p>For the validation of the leptonic charge-parity (CP) violation (#1), both FNAL and J-PARC are planning to increase their beam intensities to Mega-Watt class, which is much higher than the current power. To enable this push to the frontier of high energy physics, it is important to predict and even increase the lifetime of targets and beam windows by developing or choosing radiation damage tolerant materials.</p><p>To address this problem, several leading accelerator laboratories and reactor/fusion research facilities in the U.S.A., Europe, and Japan are cooperating under the RaDIATE international collaboration (*2). From 2017 to 2018, the RaDIATE collaboration performed a proton irradiation experiment in the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the aim of which was to expose various candidate materials for beam windows and targets to a high-intensity proton beam. Titanium alloys were included in the irradiated materials of the experiment, motivated by the current and future use of the titanium alloys for the beam windows at the J-PARC neutrino experimental facility and the potential use of Ti alloys for beam windows for neutrino beam facilities at Fermilab (Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility). There are concerns that the beam windows may not withstand the continual thermal shocks at the expected much higher beam powers because of radiation-induced changes in mechanical properties. After irradiation, material specimens were then transported to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for detailed examinations by the state-of-the-art analytical equipment. Figure 2 shows some of the titanium alloy material specimens assembled inside a container, referred to as an irradiation capsule, prior to capsule sealing and irradiation.</p><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="embedded" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="2118a583-1a9c-466c-978f-167f5fca81e0" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/2.png?itok=Da3MUnBD 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/2.png?itok=JW6Sn_6T 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/2.png?itok=JW6Sn_6T 2x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/2.png?itok=JW6Sn_6T 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/2.png?itok=JW6Sn_6T 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/2.png?itok=Da3MUnBD 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/2.png?itok=Da3MUnBD 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/2.png?itok=Da3MUnBD 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_tablet_/public/2.png?itok=NOH8LMhV 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_tablet_/public/2.png?itok=NOH8LMhV 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_small_phone/public/2.png?itok=QKP4vWBk 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_small_phone/public/2.png?itok=QKP4vWBk 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_phone/public/2.png?itok=djJ_CG4e 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/png"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_phone/public/2.png?itok=djJ_CG4e" alt="rad-2" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p>Figure 2:(Left) The high-intensity proton beam exposure at the BLIP facility. At the upstream of the capsules for medical isotope production, six capsules containing target and beam window materials, designed and fabricated by RaDIATE Collaboration participants, were installed and high-intensity proton beam exposure was performed. The color represents heat deposition caused by the proton beam (red indicates the hottest temperatures and blue the coolest). (Right) Inside of the Capsule containing titanium alloy specimens for tensile tests and for observations by electron microscopy at the most downstream (6th) location.</p></div></article></div><h2>Research Methods and Achievements</h2><p>Up to now, the J-PARC neutrino experimental facility employs titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, ze., titanium (Ti) with the addition of 6% aluminum (Al) and 4% vanadium (V), for its beam window, which has a high strength among lightweight titanium alloys. When pure Ti is heated to 885°C, the titanium undergoes a phase transformation from the lower temperature α-phase to the higher temperature β-phase.</p><p>The Al and V are intentionally added because they stabilize the α-phase and β-phase, respectively, producing an alloy that can be heat treated to produce a dual-phase structure that can be tailored to yield desired mechanical properties (Fig. 3).</p><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="embedded" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="6a5ab48d-df3f-4213-b0e7-dbab51756bcb" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/3.png?itok=W9w973rd 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/3.png?itok=3qlmLoIC 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/3.png?itok=3qlmLoIC 2x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/3.png?itok=3qlmLoIC 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/3.png?itok=3qlmLoIC 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/3.png?itok=W9w973rd 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/3.png?itok=W9w973rd 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/3.png?itok=W9w973rd 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_tablet_/public/3.png?itok=nklMzNk4 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_tablet_/public/3.png?itok=nklMzNk4 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_small_phone/public/3.png?itok=U9Eplxkf 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_small_phone/public/3.png?itok=U9Eplxkf 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_phone/public/3.png?itok=-S67tlzv 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/png"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_phone/public/3.png?itok=-S67tlzv" alt="rad-3" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>Figure 3:Electron microscopy of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. </em>α<em>-phase and </em>β<em>-phase with different crystal structures co-exist. The </em>ω<em>-phase is a very fine precipitate within the </em>β<em>-phase, with a specific relationship to the </em>β<em>-phase orientation.</em></p></div></article></div><p>However, after irradiation, tensile tests on the Ti-6Al-4V specimens irradiated to relatively low doses exhibited almost complete loss of uniform elongation and the associated increase in the yield point (termed embrittlement}, which may impact the performance of the beam window (*3). On the other hand, the Ti-3Al-2.5V alloy, another dual α+β phase alloy but with less β-phase, retained uniform elongation of three percent, even after three times more irradiation (Fig. 4).</p><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="embedded" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="6c7a4f17-0429-4577-a7b9-0c8d3fa2ba5d" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-4.png?itok=u7yRMak3 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-4.png?itok=v6R3SIir 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-4.png?itok=v6R3SIir 2x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-4.png?itok=v6R3SIir 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-4.png?itok=v6R3SIir 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-4.png?itok=u7yRMak3 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-4.png?itok=u7yRMak3 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-4.png?itok=u7yRMak3 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_tablet_/public/fig-4.png?itok=QGE17whe 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_tablet_/public/fig-4.png?itok=QGE17whe 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_small_phone/public/fig-4.png?itok=WKby9giB 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_small_phone/public/fig-4.png?itok=WKby9giB 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_phone/public/fig-4.png?itok=3DPiLd7r 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/png"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_phone/public/fig-4.png?itok=3DPiLd7r" alt="fig-4" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>Figure 4: Stress-strain curves (please refer to the glossary *4) for Ti-6Al-4V (left) and Ti-3Al2.5V (right). Solid lines are before irradiation and dashed lines are after irradiation. It is clearly observed that Ti-6Al-4V alloy (left) loses almost all uniform elongation after irradiation, i.e., stress decreases immediately after yielding.</em></p></div></article></div><p>To begin to understand the cause of this remarkable difference of tensile behavior between these two alloys, the irradiated Ti-6Al-4V has been investigated using a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope capable of atomic resolution and various analytical modes to probe chemical and structural changes at the nanoscale and above. As a result, a high density of defect clusters forming small dislocation loops was found in the α-phase, and an even higher density of very fine precipitates, referred to as “ω-phase”, evolved during irradiation in the β-phase (Fig. 5). A precursor to the ω-phase was present in the alloy before irradiation, but irradiation accelerated the precipitation of this phase, which is known to significantly reduce the ductility of the alloy. All these facts suggest that the significant loss of uniform elongation in the Ti-6AI-4V alloy after irradiation is due to the high density of small defect clusters in the a-phase, further exacerbated by the evolution of the ω-phase in the intergranular β-phase. Further work is needed to completely understand the differences between the two alloys.</p><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="embedded" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="70bc8f16-cfbc-4ada-92db-6a51a5641cf4" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-5.png?itok=ZpjRoryH 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-5.png?itok=axsIlRo1 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-5.png?itok=axsIlRo1 2x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-5.png?itok=axsIlRo1 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop/public/fig-5.png?itok=axsIlRo1 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-5.png?itok=ZpjRoryH 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-5.png?itok=ZpjRoryH 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_large_desktop_non_retina/public/fig-5.png?itok=ZpjRoryH 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_tablet_/public/fig-5.png?itok=vGUwVkky 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_tablet_/public/fig-5.png?itok=vGUwVkky 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_small_phone/public/fig-5.png?itok=1WLPAo_V 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_small_phone/public/fig-5.png?itok=1WLPAo_V 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/original_image_phone/public/fig-5.png?itok=36_qMZtZ 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/png"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/original_image_phone/public/fig-5.png?itok=36_qMZtZ" alt="fig-5" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>Figure 5:Transmission electron micrographs highlight the </em>β<em>-phase in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In the electron beam diffraction pattern shown in the inset of left image, distinct streaks appear. These streaks coalesce into discreet diffraction spots (from left to right insets) with increasing proton beam exposure. By selecting one of these streaks/spots as indicated by the red arrows, the </em>ω<em>-phase can be resolved as a high density of bright particles as shown in the main images, that clearly coarsen in size with proton irradiation.</em></p></div></article></div><h2>Significance of the Achievement and Expectation for Future Studies</h2><p>So far, the titanium alloy Ti-6AI-4V has been utilized as the beam window at the high-intensity proton accelerator facilities. However, it has now been shown that the alloy loses uniform elongation after exposure to relatively low proton doses. It may not be applicable as a beam window for the next-generation of neutrino experimental facilities at FNAL and J-PARC at much higher beam power. Exploration of other alloys and different thermomechanical processing was pursued to identify an acceptable candidate material that can handle the high beam power. Through this research, insight has been gained into how the different titanium alloy grades respond to irradiation. In fact, according to research by the RaDIATE Collaboration, one alloy in particular exhibited much less degradation of material properties after irradiation. This research achieved a major milestone towards the development of a suitable beam window material to handle the higher power beam operations. This research also can be beneficial to the development of radiation- resistant Ti alloys, which may play a role in fusion reactors and accelerator-driven nuclear transmutation systems.</p><p>The RaDIATE international collaboration engages in collaborative research to find solutions for the target and beam window materials, which impact all of the premier extensive accelerator facilities in the world. The collaborative approach of international research activities are imperative to help realize the selection of suitable materials for unprecedented high-intensity accelerator operation, which will help drive the breakthroughs in particle and nuclear physics, material and life sciences, and accelerator-driven nuclear transformation technologies.</p><h2>Article Information</h2><h4>Title</h4><p>Tensile behavior of dual-phase titanium alloys under high-intensity proton beam exposure: radiation-induced omega phase transformation in Ti-6Al-4V</p><h4>Authors</h4><p>Taku Ishida<sup>1,2</sup>, Eiichi Wakai<sup>1,3</sup>,Shunsuke Makimura<sup>1,2</sup>, Andrew M. Casella<sup>4</sup>, Danny J. Edwards<sup>4</sup>,Ramprashad Prabhakaran<sup>4</sup>, David J. Senor<sup>4</sup>,Kavin Ammigan<sup>5</sup>, Sujit Bidhar<sup>5</sup>, Patrick G. Hurh<sup>5</sup>, Frederique Pellemoine<sup>5</sup>, Christopher J. Densham<sup>6</sup>, Michael D. Fitton<sup6>, Joe M. Bennett<sup>6</sup>,Dohyun Kim<sup>7</sup>, Nikolaos Simos<sup>7</sup>, Masayuki Hagiwara<sup>1,2</sup>, Naritoshi Kawamura<sup>1,2</sup>, Shin-ichiro Meigo<sup>1,3</sup>, Katsuya Yonehara<sup>5</sup>,<br /> On behalf of the RaDIATE COLLABORATION </sup6></p><h4>Affiliation</h4><p><sup>1</sup>J-PARC, <sup>2</sup>KEK, <sup>3</sup>JAEA, <sup>4</sup>PNNL, <sup>5</sup>FNAL, <sup>6</sup>STFC RAL, <sup>7</sup>BNL</p><h4>Journal Name</h4><p>Journal of Nuclear Materials</p><h4>DOI</h4><p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2020.152413">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2020.152413</a></p><h2>Media Contacts for Further Inquiries</h2><p><strong>About J-PARC:</strong><br /> Minako Abe, PR section, J-PARC<br /><a href="mailto:pr-section@j-parc.jp">pr-section@j-parc.jp</a><br /> Phone: +81-29-284-4578<br />  </p><p><strong>About KEK:</strong><br /> Hajime Hikino, PR office, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK, Japan)<br /><a href="mailto:press@kek.jp">press@kek.jp</a><br /> Phone: +81-29-879-6047<br /> Hiroko Tada, PR office, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK, Japan)<br /><a href="mailto:htada@post.kek.jp">htada@post.kek.jp</a><br /> Phone: +81-29-864-5638</p><h3>Technical Contacts</h3><p><strong>Globally and in Japan:</strong><br /> Dr. Taku Ishida, neutrino section, J-PARC center<br /><a href="mailto:taku.ishida@kek.jp">taku.ishida@kek.jp</a><br /> Phone:+81-80-5653-8243</p><p><strong>Globally and in United States:</strong><br /> Dr. David Senor, Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory<br /><a href="mailto:david.senor@pnnl.gov">david.senor@pnnl.gov</a><br /> Phone: +1-(509) 371-6936</p><p><strong>Globally and in Europe:</strong><br /> Dr. Christopher J. Densham, High Power Targets Group, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory<br /><a href="chris.densham@stfc.ac.uk">chris.densham@stfc.ac.uk</a><br /> Phone: +44-(0)1235-446273</p><p><strong>At FNAL:</strong><br /> Dr. Kavin Ammigan, High-Power High-Intensity Targetry R&amp;D Group, Target Systems Department, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory<br /><a href="mailto:ammikav@fnal.gov">ammikav@fnal.gov</a><br /> Phone: +1-(630)840-4381</p><p><strong>At BNL:</strong><br /> Dr. Dohyun Kim, Medical Isotope Research &amp; Production group<br /><a href="mailto:dohkim@bnl.gov">dohkim@bnl.gov</a><br /> Phone: +1 (631) 344-7850</p><p><strong>About RaDIATE International Collaboration:</strong><br /> Dr. Frederique Pellemoine, High-Power High-Intensity Targetry R&amp;D Group, Target Systems Department, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory<br /><a href="mailto:fpellemo@fnal.gov">fpellemo@fnal.gov</a><br /> Phone: +1 (630) 840-6267</p><h2>Glossary</h2><h3>*1 Leptonic CP violation</h3><p>The reason for the overwhelming existence of matter relative to anti-matter in our universe is a fundamental mystery. Modern cosmology posits that this condition originated from the “violation” of a fundamental law of physics. The laws of physics are basically symmetric, and the laws applicable to matter particles are also valid for anti-matter particles. Meanwhile, it is known that there is a tiny amount of violation in the symmetry between quarks (elementary particles that constitute matter) and anti-quarks. This symmetry breaking, referred to as “Charge-conjugation (C)- Parity (P) symmetry violation”, has not been observed yet on the other fundamental particle group called “leptons”, which consists of electrons, muons, and neutrinos. Recently, the T2K international collaboration made an announcement that they obtained an indication of a fairly large CP violation between neutrinos and anti-neutrinos, which were generated at J-PARC, and detected at an underground neutrino observatory 295 km away called “SuperKamiokande” (check reference). To confirm this indication, a project is underway in Japan to increase the beam power at J-PARC and to construct the “Hyper-Kamiokande” detector with 8 times larger fiducial volume than Super-Kamiokande. In the U.S.A., a project is underway to direct neutrinos from the LongBaseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), under construction at FNAL in Illinois, to a detector 1,300 km away at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) in South Dakota. To perform these experiments, scheduled to start around 2027, it is necessary to increase the beam power of the proton accelerators that produce neutrinos to Mega-Watt class. Thus, developing materials for targets and beam windows that can tolerate radiation damage from the unprecedented high beam power is crucial.</p><p><strong>(reference)</strong>:J-PARC press release (2020.04.16)</p><p><a href="https://j-parc.jp/c/en/press-release/2020/04/16000517.html">T2K Results Restrict Possible Values of Neutrino CP Phase</a> </p><p>Published in Nature, the results are a major step forward in the study of difference between matter and antimatter</p><h3>*2 RaDIATE International Collaboration</h3><p>RaDIATE is an abbreviation of “Radiation Damage In Accelerator Target Environments”. In 2012, FNAL and STFC advocated the necessity to promote research and development for materials under accelerator target environments, i.e., materials employed for targets, beam windows, collimators, and beam dumps, which suffer direct impingement of high-intensity proton beams, and initiated an international collaboration with FNAL as the lead organization. As of 2020, the collaboration has grown to more than 70 members at 13 institutions in the U.S.A., Europe and Japan, including high-intensity proton accelerator facilities for particle and nuclear physics, spallation neutron sources, and nuclear transmutation research (FNAL, STFC, ORNL, ESS, CERN, J-PARC=KEK&amp;JAEA, etc) and of nuclear research facilities that have rich expertise and technologies to study radiation damage effects on fission and fusion reactor materials (PNNL, Oxford University, JAEA, etc). The collaboration promotes research at the forefront of radiation damage tolerance and thermal shock resistance of materials in challenging irradiation environments.</p><p><strong>(reference)</strong><a href="https://radiate.fnal.gov">RaDIATE International Collaboration Website</a>:</p><h3>*3 Tensile tests and uniform elongation</h3><p>When tensile tests are performed, the material initially deforms in proportion to the applied stress. When the stress increases beyond the yield stress, the specimen starts to elongate, and the stress-strain curve departs from linearity. If stress continues to increase, the material elongates uniformly, and the elongation up to the maximum-stress point is referred to as “uniform elongation” (Fig.6). It is important to retain uniform elongation in a structural material because it allows graceful failure without the rapid growth of cracks. Materials are typically hardened after irradiation due to the accumulation of radiation defects, which increases the yield stress of the material. At the same time, uniform elongation is reduced. This behavior is referred to as radiation hardening and embrittlement.</p><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="d13f124c-2d5c-4306-bb19-24c3b7ae1ad6" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/6.png?itok=qcfl22sR 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/6.png?itok=qcfl22sR 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/6.png?itok=qcfl22sR 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/6.png?itok=qcfl22sR 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/6.png?itok=qcfl22sR 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/6.png?itok=qcfl22sR 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/6.png?itok=qcfl22sR 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/6.png?itok=qcfl22sR 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/6.png?itok=efioCX68 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/6.png?itok=efioCX68 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/6.png?itok=efioCX68 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/6.png?itok=fAdyaif0 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/6.png?itok=fAdyaif0 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/6.png?itok=efioCX68 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/6.png?itok=EoYYDIMe 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/6.png?itok=EoYYDIMe 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/6.png?itok=EoYYDIMe 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/png"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/6.png?itok=xqZ-hhzA" alt="rad-6" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>Figure 6:(Left) Ideal stress-strain curve obtained with tensile testing. (Right) Tensile test at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). By tensioning a dogbone-shaped specimen, the relationship between elongation relative to the original length (strain) and load per unit cross section (stress) is obtained, which provides mechanical properties required for vacuum window design.</em></p></div></article></div></div><div class="source"><div id="main" class="with-elements"><div class="hero"><div><div><div class="block-region-hero"><h1> High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) </h1></div></div></div></div><div class="main"><div class="main-top"><div class="block-region-maintop"><div class="header-image"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=p3_IYyjj 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=B0OogqCP 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=B0OogqCP 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=B0OogqCP 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=DdEBnkxX 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=DdEBnkxX 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=B0OogqCP 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=Qxr5sIgx 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=Qxr5sIgx 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=Qxr5sIgx 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"/><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/OT0161H.jpg?itok=w3BsumW1" alt="Render of International Linear Collider - Next-generation particle accelerator (Courtesy: Rey.Hori/KEK)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture></article></div></div></div><div class="element"><div class="block-region-main"><div class="institution-body"><p><span class="caps">KEK </span>was established in 1997 in a reorganization of the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo (established in 1955), the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (established in 1971), and the Meson Science Laboratory of the University of Tokyo (established in 1988).</p><p>Scientists at <span class="caps">KEK </span>use accelerators and perform research in high-energy physics to answer the most basic questions about the universe as a whole, and the matter and the life it contains.</p><p>&nbsp;</p></div><div class="institution-address"><label>Address</label><p class="address" translate="no"><span class="organization">KEK, Japan</span><br><span class="address-line1">1-1, Oho</span><br><span class="locality">Tsukuba</span>, <span class="administrative-area">Ibaraki</span><br><span class="postal-code">305-0801</span><br><span class="country">Japan</span></p></div><p class="phone"> + 81 029-879-6047  </p> , <p class="phone"> + 81 029-879-6049 (fax) </p><a href="http://www.kek.jp/en/" target="_blank">http://www.kek.jp/en/</a><div class="institution-contactinfo"><label>Contact Info</label><p>High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)<br /> Public Relation Office, Head<br /> Hajime Hikino<br /> E-mail:<a href="mailto:press@mail.kek.jp">press@mail.kek.jp</a></p></div><div class="institution-links"><label>Links</label><ul class="links"><li><a href="https://www.facebook.com/KEK.JP/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Facebook</a></li><li><a href="https://twitter.com/kek_en" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Twitter</a></li><li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/KEKphysics" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">YouTube</a></li></ul></div></div></div></div></div> Mon, 09 Nov 2020 18:10:55 +0000 xeno 15030 at https://www.interactions.org Laboratories celebrate dark matter research with worldwide event https://www.interactions.org/press-release/laboratories-celebrate-dark-matter-research-worldwide-event Laboratories celebrate dark matter research with worldwide eventPress Release<span><span lang="" about="/users/xeno" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">xeno</span></span> Wed, 10/14/2020 - 11:213820<div class="pr-body"><p>There’s far more to our universe than meets the eye. Everything we can see, everything we know exists, makes up just five percent of the matter and energy in the universe. So, what about the other 95 percent? Astronomers and astrophysicists believe that approximately 25 percent of the missing mass and energy in the universe is made up of dark matter. This ubiquitous substance is everywhere, yet, so far, remains a mystery.</p><p>Dark Matter Day, an international event, aims to shed some light on that mystery. From Oct. 26-31, a series of Dark Matter Day events will highlight the global search for dark matter, which, together with dark energy, makes up about 95 percent of the mass and energy in our universe. Dark Matter Day spreads the word about the many fascinating ways scientists search for dark matter, and the importance of devoting scientific resources to unraveling this cosmic riddle.</p><p>With the ongoing pandemic, Dark Matter Day is going virtual, making every event accessible to a worldwide audience. To explore the many opportunities to participate, visit the <a href="https://www.darkmatterday.com">Dark Matter Day website</a>.</p><p>Though scientists have yet to detect dark matter, indirect evidence tells us it exists—in the gravitational effects of galaxies and the way light bends around unseen objects in space. Understanding the nature of dark matter will help us better understand the universe in which we live. But scientists are not sure yet what this mysterious substance is composed of, or whether the answer, when it comes, will require a complete re-write of our understanding of physics.</p><p>A host of innovative experiments are searching for the source of dark matter using different types of tools, such as detectors built over a mile underground, powerful particle beams and telescopes based both on Earth and in space. For more on the global hunt for dark matter, visit the Interactions collaboration’s <a href="https://www.interactions.org/hub/dark-matter-hub">Dark Matter Hub</a>.</p><p>Sponsored by the <a href="https://www.interactions.org">Interactions Collaboration</a>, an international community of particle physics communication specialists, Dark Matter Day celebrates the work being done in laboratories and institutions around the world, and shares what we do know about this cosmic puzzle with audiences worldwide.&nbsp;</p><p>To find resources or to register your event, go to the <a href="https://www.darkmatterday.com">Dark Matter Day</a> website.</p><p><strong>Press Contact:</strong>&nbsp;<br /> Constance Walter<br /><em>Communications Director</em><br /> Sanford Underground Research Facility<br /><a href="mailto:cwalter@sanfordlab.org">cwalter@sanfordlab.org</a><br /><a href="tel:6057224025">605-722-4025</a></p></div><div class="source"><div id="main" class="with-elements"><div class="hero"><div><div><div class="block-region-hero"><h1> Interactions Collaboration </h1></div></div></div></div><div class="main"><div class="main-top"><div class="block-region-maintop"></div></div><div class="element"><div class="block-region-main"><div class="institution-address"><label>Address</label><p class="address" translate="no"><span class="organization">Xeno Media</span><br><span class="address-line1">18W100 22nd St</span><br><span class="address-line2">Suite #103A</span><br><span class="locality">Oakbrook Terrace</span>, <span class="administrative-area">IL</span><span class="postal-code">60181</span><br><span class="country">United States</span></p></div><p class="phone"> 6305991550 </p><a href="https://www.xenomedia.com" target="_blank">https://www.xenomedia.com</a><div class="institution-contactinfo"><label>Contact Info</label><p>Julian Vargas<br /> Digital Marketing Specialist<br /> Xeno Media<br /><a href="tel:6305991550">(630)599-1550</a><br /><a href="mailto:webmaster@interactions.org">webmaster@interactions.org</a></p></div></div></div></div></div></div> Wed, 14 Oct 2020 16:21:23 +0000 xeno 15016 at https://www.interactions.org Key Partners Mark Launch of Electron-Ion Collider Project https://www.interactions.org/press-release/key-partners-mark-launch-electron-ion-collider-project Key Partners Mark Launch of Electron-Ion Collider ProjectPress Release<span><span lang="" about="/users/xeno" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">xeno</span></span> Thu, 09/24/2020 - 09:403720<div class="pr-body"><h2>State-of-the-art facility and partnership among DOE, NYS, Brookhaven Lab, and Jefferson Lab will open a new frontier in nuclear physics, a field essential to our understanding of the visible universe with applications in national security, human health, and more</h2><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="2fdccf74-813c-4cc6-8daf-e660bf25cbf9" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=uJ3VlCav 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=uJ3VlCav 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=uJ3VlCav 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=uJ3VlCav 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=uJ3VlCav 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=uJ3VlCav 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=uJ3VlCav 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=uJ3VlCav 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=JN7gjcvG 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=JN7gjcvG 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=JN7gjcvG 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=msR_QM_0 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=msR_QM_0 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=JN7gjcvG 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=_EHltgcx 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=_EHltgcx 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=_EHltgcx 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/eic-event-1000px.jpg?itok=21DlAE6K" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture></article></div><p>UPTON, NY—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Under Secretary for Science Paul Dabbar, leaders from DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven Lab) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), and elected officials from New York State and Virginia today commemorated the start of the <a href="https://www.bnl.gov/eic/">Electron-Ion Collider</a> project. The event was an opportunity for in-person and virtual speakers to voice their support for this one-of-a-kind nuclear physics research facility, which will be built at Brookhaven Lab by a worldwide collaboration of physicists over the next decade.</p><p>The 2.4-mile-circumference particle collider will act as a high-precision sub-atomic “microscope” for exploring the innermost three-dimensional structures of protons and larger atomic nuclei. Experiments at the EIC will reveal how those particles’ fundamental building blocks (quarks and gluons) are arranged, how their interactions build up the mass of most of the visible matter in the universe and uncover the secrets of the strongest force in Nature. The journey into this new frontier in nuclear physics will attract the world’s best and brightest scientists, produce scientific and technological advances that extend to medicine and national security, and serve as a hub of innovation, collaboration, and STEM education for decades to come.</p><p>“DOE scientists have been at the forefront of so many discoveries in nuclear physics,” said DOE Under Secretary for Science Paul Dabbar. “Thanks to the support of President Trump’s leadership, Congress, our Office of Science, and the State of New York, we’ve come together to create a one-of-a-kind research facility that is strengthened by collaboration with partners at Jefferson Lab and other national labs and institutions around the world. From the most basic components of matter to the farthest reaches of the cosmos to the next technologies that will drive the economy of the United States and the world, the DOE will continue this mission right here at Brookhaven and at our labs across the country.”</p><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="3ae383e9-68cf-48f1-9157-42b2739547a6" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=hSO-q9p- 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=hSO-q9p- 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=hSO-q9p- 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=hSO-q9p- 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=hSO-q9p- 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=hSO-q9p- 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=hSO-q9p- 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=hSO-q9p- 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=KmZj0t4k 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=KmZj0t4k 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=KmZj0t4k 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=1rc7d-gk 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=1rc7d-gk 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=KmZj0t4k 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=I-Bg3AO4 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=I-Bg3AO4 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=I-Bg3AO4 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/bnl_eic_launch_group2_action-1000px.jpg?itok=fqd5yyth" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>Leaders cut the ceremonial ribbon at the Electron-Ion Collider project launch ceremony. Pictured from left to right are former CEO of Empire State Development Corporation Howard Zemsky, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Brookhaven Site Office Manager Robert Gordon, Stony Brook University President Maurie McInnis, U.S. Representative Lee Zeldin, U.S. Senator Charles Schumer, DOE Under Secretary for Science Paul M. Dabbar, Lieutenant Governor of New York Kathy Hochul, and Brookhaven Lab Director Doon Gibbs.</em></p></div></article></div><p>With a proposed budget in the range of ~$1.6-2.6 billion from DOE’s Office of Science and $100 million from New York State, the project will draw on expertise from throughout the DOE complex and at universities and laboratories around the world. Physicists from Brookhaven Lab and Jefferson Lab will play leading roles.</p><p>“As affirmed by the National Academy of Sciences, the EIC will maintain leadership in nuclear physics and accelerator science and technology with impacts on our technological, economic, and national security,” said Brookhaven Lab Director Doon Gibbs. “We are delighted to be partners with Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in designing, constructing, and operating the EIC. We will build upon strengths at both laboratories, but also reach out to other laboratories both in the U.S. and internationally.”</p><p>“Jefferson Lab is proud to partner with Brookhaven Lab to bring this next-generation research facility to fruition,” said Jefferson Lab Director Stuart Henderson. “The EIC will enable a new era of scientific discovery that promises to answer some of the most fundamental, yet profound questions that we can ask about matter, such as: How does the mass and spin of protons and neutrons arise from their constituent pieces?  How does the strongest force in the universe—the force that holds quarks together inside protons and neutrons—give rise to the properties of protons, neutrons and all visible matter?  What does a proton or neutron ‘look like’ on the inside? In a sense, the EIC will allow us to complete our century-long adventure of figuring out what atoms are made of and how they work.”</p><p><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="400px" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/TO-3e0Ws8qo" width="100%"></iframe></p><p>Elected officials from both New York and Virginia, who provided critical support in moving the EIC project forward, took part in the event at Brookhaven Lab.</p><p>“BNL has the talent, the technology, and the track-record to make the most of this national project,” said U.S. Senator Charles Schumer (NY).  “The Lab is used to taking on big projects, critical research, and the most serious questions science can pose.  This multi-billion-dollar federal investment on Long Island will guarantee Brookhaven National Lab continues to be a world-class research facility for the next generation.”</p><p>“This cutting-edge project will inject billions of dollars and an extensive number of jobs into our communities all while churning out scores of scientific discoveries that help us understand the world around us, harness the untapped potential of the natural world and, from human health to our national security and beyond, benefit nearly every aspect of our lives," said Congressman Lee Zeldin (NY). "Brookhaven National Lab has pioneered the future of clean and green energy, medical and cancer research, astrophysics, and far more, all while encouraging and cultivating the bright minds of future generations of researchers. Throughout this process, as co-chair of the National Labs Caucus and the Representative in the House for BNL, I've worked closely with Secretary Brouillette, Secretary Perry, Under Secretary Dabbar, and BNL leadership on this effort. It's amazing to see this project become a reality right here on Long Island."</p><p>“COVID-19 has shown us how critically important it is to invest in our scientific infrastructure so we’re ready for future crises, and New York is already investing significant resources to make it a hub for scientific innovation and research,” said New York State Governor Andrew M. Cuomo. “The state’s $100 million investment in this project is part and parcel with that commitment, and this project is a win-win both for scientific development and the New York economy.”</p><p>“Innovation is in New York's DNA leading the way in scientific advancement and discovery,” said New York State Lieutenant Governor Kathy Hochul. “Long Island is driving a big part of our cutting-edge research, including at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. We’re proud that the federal government chose Long Island to house the world’s first electron ion collider, bringing a billion-dollar plus investment to the region. This will create thousands of new jobs, attract the best and the brightest minds, and spur millions in additional investment growing Brookhaven, Long Island and the entire state. We are committed to continuing to advance and support the scientific research and development on Long Island as we build back better and reimagine New York State for the post-pandemic future."</p><p>“Development of the EIC will help the U.S. maintain its global leadership in nuclear physics and answer outstanding questions about matter and the physical world,” said U.S. Senator Mark R. Warner (VA). "I am proud of the significant role that Jefferson Lab will play in the construction and operation of the EIC and look forward to the groundbreaking scientific discoveries that will occur as a result of this project.”</p><p>"Brookhaven National Laboratory has put Long Island at the forefront of scientific innovation while helping our region create a Research Corridor and spur economic growth," said Kevin S. Law, President &amp; CEO of the Long Island Association. "The state-of-the-art Electron-Ion Collider will open up new opportunities for us to continue down that path.”</p><p>“Two of the things that drew me to Stony Brook University are the impressive research accomplishments, and powerful partnerships like the ones we celebrate here today at the launch of the Electron-Ion Collider project,” said Stony Brook University President Maurie McInnis. “I am especially pleased that Stony Brook, as a partner in Brookhaven Science Associates, has been able to participate and contribute to the advancement of this work over many years. With our long history of leading research in nuclear and high-energy physics, we are proud that several of our faculty contributed to the conceptual design and scientific justification for the EIC, and I know that many are eager to participate in experiments that will be conducted here.”</p><h3>EIC science and other benefits</h3><p>The Electron-Ion Collider will be a 3D “microscope” for studying quarks and gluons, which are the building blocks of protons, neutrons, and atomic nuclei—in other words, all visible matter. Gluons are the subatomic particles that bind quarks into the more familiar particles that make up matter in today’s world.</p><p>Collisions at the EIC will reveal how quarks and gluons interact to form these larger building blocks via the strong nuclear force. A deeper understanding of the strong force—which is 100 times more powerful than the electromagnetic force that governs today’s electronic technologies—may lead to insights and discoveries that power the technologies of tomorrow.</p><p>The EIC will also give physicists the tool they need to fully explore the origin of proton spin. Proton spin, an intrinsic angular momentum somewhat analogous to the spin of a toy top, is used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR and MRI), but scientists still don’t know how this property arises from the proton’s inner building blocks.</p><p>The technological advances already under development to make the EIC a reality—e.g., innovative accelerator, particle-tracking, and data-management components—could have widespread impact on new approaches to cancer therapy, solving other “big data” challenges, and improving accelerator facilities for testing batteries, catalysts, and other energy-related materials. In addition, the collider-accelerator infrastructure that powers the EIC will be available to researchers who use particle beams to produce and conduct studies on medical isotopes and to study the effects of simulated space radiation with the aim of protecting future astronauts. </p><p>All findings stemming from research at the EIC will be available through openly published research to scientists from other labs, academia, and industry seeking to learn from that knowledge and expand the limits of technology. The EIC science community is looking forward to sharing its success and discoveries with the nation and the world.</p><p><em>Brookhaven Lab is managed for the Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a partnership between Stony Brook University and Battelle, and six core universities: Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton, and Yale.</em></p><p><em>Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, a joint venture of the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. and PAE, manages and operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, or Jefferson Lab, for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science.</em></p><p><em>DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/">https://www.energy.gov/science/</a></em></p><p><em>Follow @BrookhavenLab on <a href="https://twitter.com/BrookhavenLab" target="_blank">Twitter</a> or find us on <a href="https://www.facebook.com/brookhavenlab/" target="_blank">Facebook</a>. </em></p><p><strong>GRAPHICS: </strong>Electron-Ion Collider graphics are available on <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/brookhavenlab/albums/72157714316624996" target="_blank">Brookhaven National Laboratory’s Flickr site</a>. </p></div><div class="source"><div id="main" class="with-elements"><div class="hero"><div><div><div class="block-region-hero"><h1> Brookhaven National Laboratory </h1></div></div></div></div><div class="main"><div class="main-top"><div class="block-region-maintop"><div class="header-image"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=nVKLwBIS 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=nVKLwBIS 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=nVKLwBIS 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=nVKLwBIS 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=nVKLwBIS 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=nVKLwBIS 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=nVKLwBIS 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=nVKLwBIS 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=TvOp5TE6 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=TvOp5TE6 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=TvOp5TE6 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=7-3eyUri 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=7-3eyUri 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=TvOp5TE6 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=lKuKuxVj 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=lKuKuxVj 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=lKuKuxVj 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"/><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/BN0012H.jpg?itok=NXysUEXp" alt="Brookhaven National Laboratory" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture></article></div></div></div><div class="element"><div class="block-region-main"><div class="institution-body"><p>We advance fundamental research in nuclear and particle physics to gain a deeper understanding of matter, energy, space, and time; apply photon sciences and nanomaterials research to energy challenges of critical importance to the nation; and perform cross-disciplinary research on climate change, sustainable energy, and Earth’s ecosystems.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p><p><br /> &nbsp;</p></div><div class="institution-address"><label>Address</label><p class="address" translate="no"><span class="organization">Brookhaven National Laboratory</span><br><span class="address-line1">P.O. Box 5000</span><br><span class="locality">Upton</span>, <span class="administrative-area">NY</span><span class="postal-code">11973-5000</span><br><span class="country">United States</span></p></div><p class="phone"> + 1 631 344 8000 </p><a href="https://www.bnl.gov/world/" target="_blank">https://www.bnl.gov/world/</a><div class="institution-contactinfo"><label>Contact Info</label><p><a href="http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/media.html" target="_blank">Media and Communications Office</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<br /> Karen McNulty Walsh<br /> +1 (631) 344-8350&nbsp;<br /><a href="mailto:kmcnulty@bnl.gov" target="_blank">kmcnulty@bnl.gov</a></p></div><div class="institution-links"><label>Links</label><ul class="links"><li><a href="http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/images.html" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Brookhaven photo database</a></li><li><a href="http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/news_releases.html" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Press releases</a></li><li><a href="http://www.linkedin.com/companies/brookhaven-national-laboratory" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">LinkedIn</a></li><li><a href="http://www.youtube.com/user/BrookhavenLab" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">YouTube</a></li><li><a href="http://twitter.com/brookhavenlab" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Twitter</a></li><li><a href="http://science.energy.gov/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Funding - DOE Office of Science</a></li><li><a href="https://www.facebook.com/brookhavenlab" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Facebook</a></li></ul></div></div></div></div></div> Thu, 24 Sep 2020 14:40:12 +0000 xeno 15006 at https://www.interactions.org APS designates Sanford Lab, Morgan State University as historic physics sites https://www.interactions.org/press-release/aps-designates-sanford-lab-morgan-state-university-historic APS designates Sanford Lab, Morgan State University as historic physics sitesPress Release<span><span lang="" about="/users/xeno" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">xeno</span></span> Mon, 09/14/2020 - 12:423620<div class="pr-body"><h2>The pioneering neutrino research done by Ray Davis over nearly three decades forever changed our understanding of the Standard Model of Physics</h2><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="bf34ea0d-a00b-4e21-86c5-455a3da02f88" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=NkzgAl3l 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=NkzgAl3l 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=NkzgAl3l 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=NkzgAl3l 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=NkzgAl3l 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=NkzgAl3l 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=NkzgAl3l 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=NkzgAl3l 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=nUNvQn3i 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=nUNvQn3i 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=nUNvQn3i 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=Xh5xL5ki 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=Xh5xL5ki 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=nUNvQn3i 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=ZJdWh05V 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=ZJdWh05V 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=ZJdWh05V 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/Sanford_Davies.jpg?itok=W1jmqcAt" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>Circa 1960s, Ray Davis stands in the empty tank used to count solar neutrino interactions on the 4850 Level of the Homestake Gold Mine (now the Sanford Underground Research Facility). </em></p></div></article></div><p>The American Physical Society (APS) today announced it has designated SURF one of two Historic Sites in physics. The other, Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland, is recognized as the birthplace of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP)<em>. </em></p><p>The <a href="https://www.aps.org/programs/outreach/history/historicsites/">APS Historic Sites Initiative</a> works to increase public awareness of noteworthy physics-related events and discoveries. Each year, APS chooses a select number of member-nominated sites to be formally recognized, using a number of criteria to select the sites, including significant contributions of the site or an individual to the advancement of physics on a national or international level.</p><p>“Ray Davis’ work to unlock the mysteries of neutrinos has served as an inspiration to neutrino researchers for more than five decades,” said Mike Headley, executive director of the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority, which manages SURF. “His legacy lives on in experiments around the world and in our efforts to educate the next generation of scientists and engineers. We are honored and proud to receive this designation.”</p><p>For nearly three decades, Davis counted neutrinos from the Sun on the 4850 Level of the Homestake Mine (now the Sanford Underground Research Facility). And for nearly three decades he consistently saw just one-third the number of neutrinos he expected to see. Where others may have admitted defeat, Davis continued counting every neutrino that collided with atoms in his 100,000-gallon tank of dry-cleaning fluid.</p><p>A chemist from Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, Davis’ methodic approach to understanding neutrinos forever changed physics and earned Davis a share of the Nobel Prize in Physics.</p><p>Anna Davis, widow of Ray Davis, said in an email, “I am delighted to hear that Ray's ‘cave’ has achieved this significant honor. That hole in the ground in South Dakota was the center of his life for many, many years. Although he was also an enthusiastic sailor on Long Island's Great South Bay, he told our son Roger in his very last years, ‘Boating is fine, but it's thin soup compared to neutrinos!’"</p><p>Today, the 4850 Level of SURF is home to several international experiments. The depth of the facility shields sensitive technology from cosmic rays, making it an ideal location to study particle physics and astrophysics, as well as other disciplines in the sciences. Long before it became the United States’ deepest underground research laboratory, the Homestake Gold Mine was the site of Davis’ solar neutrino project.</p><p>“The experiment was an extraordinary achievement, involving painstaking observations in a 100,000-gallon tank, deep underground, extracting and counting argon atoms,” said Caltech science historian Diana L. Kormos-Buchwald, Chair of the APS Historic Sites Committee. “Davis and his collaborators demonstrated that nuclear reactions powered the Sun and provided the first evidence that electron neutrinos created in the Sun arrived at the Earth having transformed in flavor.”</p><p><strong>SURF’s citation reads: </strong></p><p>From 1962 to 1994, Raymond Davis Jr. built and operated the first successful detector for solar neutrinos using John N. Bahcall’s theoretical model and working with William A. Fowler, Maurice Goldhaber, and numerous engineers and crew members on the 4850 Level of the Homestake Mine—now the Davis Campus at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. The result of Davis’s observations, just one third the theoretical expected flux, led to fundamental advances in particle physics and astrophysics. For his work, Davis received a share of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics, along with Masatoshi Koshiba for his research into the detection of cosmic neutrinos.</p><p><strong>Morgan State University designation</strong></p><p>In December 1972, a group of friends, colleagues, and former students gathered at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee to honor three prominent Black physicists: Halson Eagleson, Donald Edwards, and John Hunter. Subsequent events, which also included scientific lectures and seminars, were held at Howard University in May 1975 and Morehouse College in April 1976.</p><p>Organizers soon realized there was a need for a formal structure and selected Morgan State University as the site because of its large physics department and its proximity to other Historically Black Colleges and Universities and national research facilities, according to Mickens. The Society of Black Physicists was inaugurated there on April 28, 1977, and later renamed the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP). It is the largest and most recognizable organization devoted to African-American physicists.</p><p>“The work of the NSBP has been pioneering and essential, but much remains to be done by all of us and the entire scientific community to significantly raise the number of African-American participants in science, and in physics in particular,’ said, Kormos-Buchwald.</p><p><strong>Morgan State University’s citation reads:</strong></p><p>On April 28, 1977, Morgan State University became the birthplace of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP). Its founders sought to promote the professional well-being of African American physicists within society at large and within the international scientific community. They have successfully mentored young Black students to increase their representation in physics and technology. Their persistent professional devotion to inclusion has produced the largest national organization that actively supports African American physicists.</p><p><em>The Sanford Underground Research Facility  is operated by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) with funding from the Department of Energy. Our mission is</em> <em>to advance world-class science and inspire learning across generations. Visit Sanford Lab at </em><a href="http://www.sanfordlab.org/"><em>www.SanfordLab.org</em></a><em>.</em></p><p><strong>About APS</strong></p><p>The <a href="https://www.aps.org/">American Physical Society</a> (<a href="http://www.aps.org/">www.aps.org</a>) is a nonprofit membership organization working to advance and diffuse the knowledge of physics through its outstanding research journals, scientific meetings, and education, outreach, advocacy and international activities.</p><p> </p></div><div class="source"><div id="main" class="with-elements"><div class="hero"><div><div><div class="block-region-hero"><h1> Sanford Underground Research Facility </h1></div></div></div></div><div class="main"><div class="main-top"><div class="block-region-maintop"><div class="header-image"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=tabLzQlj 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=tabLzQlj 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=tabLzQlj 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=tabLzQlj 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=tabLzQlj 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=tabLzQlj 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=tabLzQlj 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=tabLzQlj 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=051cGWE1 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=051cGWE1 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=051cGWE1 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=79jBTARZ 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=79jBTARZ 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=051cGWE1 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=dYkxdoZV 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=dYkxdoZV 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=dYkxdoZV 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"/><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg?itok=zDd5X_so" alt="LZ-lower-PMT-array_0.jpg" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture></article></div></div></div><div class="element"><div class="block-region-main"><div class="institution-body"><p>The Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) houses world-leading physics experiments that could give us a better understanding of the universe. Located at the former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, S.D., SURF provides significant&nbsp;depth and rock stability—a near-perfect environment for experiments that need to escape cosmic radiation that can interfere with the detection of rare physics events.</p></div><div class="institution-address"><label>Address</label><p class="address" translate="no"><span class="organization">Sanford Underground Research Facility</span><br><span class="address-line1">630 E. Summit Street</span><br><span class="locality">Lead</span>, <span class="administrative-area">SD</span><span class="postal-code">57774</span><br><span class="country">United States</span></p></div><p class="phone"> (605) 722-8650 </p><a href="https://sanfordlab.org/" target="_blank">https://sanfordlab.org/</a><div class="institution-contactinfo"><label>Contact Info</label><p>Constance Walter<br /><strong>Communications Director</strong><br /><a href="mailto:cwalter@sanfordlab.org">cwalter@sanfordlab.org</a></p></div><div class="institution-links"><label>Links</label><ul class="links"><li><a href="https://twitter.com/SanfordLab" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Twitter</a></li><li><a href="https://www.facebook.com/SanfordUndergroundLab/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Facebook</a></li><li><a href="https://www.linkedin.com/company/sanford-underground-laboratory-at-homestake/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">LinkedIn</a></li><li><a href="https://vimeo.com/sanfordlab/videos" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Vimeo</a></li><li><a href="https://pics.sanfordlab.org/f216003594" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Photo Gallery</a></li></ul></div></div></div></div></div> Mon, 14 Sep 2020 17:42:18 +0000 xeno 15000 at https://www.interactions.org ICFA appoints members for the ILC International Development Team https://www.interactions.org/press-release/icfa-appoints-members-ilc-international-development-team ICFA appoints members for the ILC International Development TeamPress Release<span><span lang="" about="/users/xeno" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">xeno</span></span> Thu, 09/10/2020 - 08:393520<div class="pr-body"><p>The international effort to realise the next major particle collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC), has a new team to lead the project. Today the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) announced the structure and the team members of the ILC International Development Team (ILC-IDT).</p><p>On 2 August, ICFA approved the formation of the ILC-IDT with a mandate to make preparations for the ILC Pre-Lab in Japan, as the first step of the preparation phase of the ILC project. ICFA appointed Tatsuya Nakada, a professor at École Polytechnique Fédérale de&nbsp;Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland, as the chair. Nakada is a former chair of the Linear Collider Board, a panel of ICFA that promoted the case for the construction of an electron-positron linear collider and its detectors as a world-wide collaborative project.&nbsp;</p><p>The Team is hosted by KEK and consists of the Executive Board (EB) and three Working Groups (WG1, WG2 and WG3). The EB comprises a Chair, three members representing the three regions contributing to the ILC effort (Americas, Asia-Pacific and Europe), and three ex-officio members (KEK liaison officer and Chairs of WG2 and WG3, whereas WG1 is chaired by the EB Chair).&nbsp;</p><p>The Team members are:</p><p><strong>Tatsuya Nakada</strong> (EPFL), Chair–Executive Committee and Working Group 1</p><p><strong>Steinar Stapnes</strong> (CERN), Regional Representative–Europe</p><p><strong>Andy Lankford</strong> (University of California, Irvine), Regional Representative–Americas</p><p><strong>Geoffrey Taylor</strong> (University of Melbourne), Regional Representative–Asia/Oceania</p><p><strong>Shinichiro Michizono</strong> (KEK), Chair–Working Group 2&nbsp;</p><p><strong>Hitoshi Murayama</strong> (University California Berkeley/ IPMU-University of Tokyo), Chair–Working Group 3</p><p><strong>Yasuhiro Okada (KEK)</strong>, KEK Liaison&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>The Team has commenced its work and is expected to complete its mandate by the end of 2021.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><a href="https://icfa.fnal.gov/wp-content/uploads/ICFA_IDT_Structure.pdf">Full Text of ICFA Statement</a></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><em>Media Contacts:</em></p><p>KEK PR Office, +81 29 979 6046,&nbsp;<a href="mailto:press@kek.jp">press@kek.jp</a></p><p>Rika Takahashi, KEK, +81 29 979 6247, rika.takahashi@kek.jp&nbsp;</p></div><div class="source"><div id="main" class="with-elements"><div class="hero"><div><div><div class="block-region-hero"><h1> International Committee for Future Accelerators </h1></div></div></div></div><div class="main"><div class="main-top"><div class="block-region-maintop"></div></div><div class="element"><div class="block-region-main"><div class="institution-contactinfo"><label>Contact Info</label><p>Linear Collider Communicators (communicators@linearcollider.org):</p><p>KEK Press Office, KEK, Japan, press@kek.jp</p></div></div></div></div></div></div> Thu, 10 Sep 2020 13:39:04 +0000 xeno 14998 at https://www.interactions.org Lead Lab Selected for Next-Generation Cosmic Microwave Background Experiment https://www.interactions.org/press-release/lead-lab-selected-next-generation-cosmic-microwave Lead Lab Selected for Next-Generation Cosmic Microwave Background ExperimentPress Release<span><span lang="" about="/users/xeno" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">xeno</span></span> Wed, 09/09/2020 - 09:093420<div class="pr-body"><h2>U.S. DOE selects Berkeley Lab to lead DOE/NSF experiment that combines observatories at the South Pole and in Chile’s high desert</h2><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="93541655-e6ba-4d46-acb3-66fbbdcb8cb4" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=50Dpf6r9 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=50Dpf6r9 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/gif"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=50Dpf6r9 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=50Dpf6r9 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=50Dpf6r9 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/gif"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=50Dpf6r9 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=50Dpf6r9 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=50Dpf6r9 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/gif"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=Xk97962q 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=Xk97962q 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=Xk97962q 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/gif"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=vmU0U3Dm 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=vmU0U3Dm 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=Xk97962q 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/gif"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=T0keoDBY 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=T0keoDBY 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=T0keoDBY 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/gif"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/SPT-Robert-Schwarz-2018.gif?itok=M0_BAk7Q" alt="The South Pole Telescope scans the sky as the southern lights, or aurora australis, form green patterns in this 2018 video clip. The CMB-S4 project will feature new telescopes around this site of current experiments at the South Pole, and also in Chile’s high desert. (Credit: Robert Schwarz/University of Minnesota)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>The South Pole Telescope scans the sky as the southern lights, or aurora australis, form green patterns in this 2018 video clip. The CMB-S4 project will feature new telescopes around this site of current experiments at the South Pole, and also in Chile’s high desert. (Credit: Robert Schwarz/University of Minnesota)</em></p></div></article></div><p>The largest collaborative undertaking yet to explore the relic light emitted by the infant universe has taken a step forward with the U.S. Department of Energy’s selection of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to lead the partnership of national labs, universities, and other institutions that are joined in the effort to carry out the DOE roles and responsibilities. This next-generation experiment, known as <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://cmb-s4.org/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1599746971487000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEATRM8sPSYldlNFtrnSZAoaAtP0A" href="https://cmb-s4.org/" target="_blank">CMB-S4, or Cosmic Microwave Background Stage 4</a>, is being planned to become a joint DOE and National Science Foundation project.</p><p> CMB-S4 will unite several existing collaborations to survey the microwave sky in unprecedented detail with 500,000 ultrasensitive detectors for 7 years. These detectors will be placed on 21 telescopes in two of our planet’s prime places for viewing deep space: the South Pole and the high Chilean desert. The project is intended to unlock many secrets in cosmology, fundamental physics, astrophysics, and astronomy.</p><p> Combining a mix of large and small telescopes at both sites, CMB-S4 will be the first experiment to access the entire scope of ground-based CMB science. It will measure ever-so-slight variations in the temperature and polarization, or directionality, of microwave light across most of the sky, to probe for ripples in space-time associated with a rapid expansion at the start of the universe, known as inflation. </p><p> </p><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="70326ae9-ca73-49a3-8195-8deebe85da22" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=gigWPuxe 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=gigWPuxe 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=gigWPuxe 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=gigWPuxe 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=gigWPuxe 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=gigWPuxe 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=gigWPuxe 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=gigWPuxe 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=RPeAu3fk 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=RPeAu3fk 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=RPeAu3fk 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=sCQE0fIy 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=sCQE0fIy 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=RPeAu3fk 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=5Dyb_EgT 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=5Dyb_EgT 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=5Dyb_EgT 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/Eternal-Sky-Atacadama-Copyright-Debra-Kellner.jpg?itok=IoVu157L" alt="This image, from “Eternal Sky,” a video series about the Simons Observatory, shows the Atacama Desert site where some of the telescopes for the CMB-S4 experiment will be built. (Credit: Copyright Debra Kellner/Simons Foundation)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>This image, from “Eternal Sky,” a video series about the Simons Observatory, shows the Atacama Desert site where some of the telescopes for the CMB-S4 experiment will be built. (Credit: Copyright Debra Kellner/Simons Foundation)</em></p></div></article></div><p style="text-align:start"><span style="font-size:small"><span style="color:#222222"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="background-color:#ffffff"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="font-family:Calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-family:Arial, sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="background-image:initial"><span style="background-position:initial"><span style="background-size:initial"><span style="background-repeat:initial"><span style="background-origin:initial"><span style="background-clip:initial">CMB-S4 will also help to measure the mass of the neutrino; map the growth of matter clustering over time in the universe; shed new light on mysterious dark matter, which makes up most of the universe’s matter but hasn’t yet been directly observed, and dark energy, which is driving an accelerating expansion of the universe; and aid in the detection and study of powerful space phenomena such as gamma-ray bursts and jet-emitting blazars.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p style="text-align:start"><span style="font-size:small"><span style="color:#222222"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="background-color:#ffffff"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="font-family:Calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-family:Arial, sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333">On Sept. 1, </span></span><span style="font-family:Arial, sans-serif"><span style="color:#434343">DOE Office of Science Director Chris Fall authorized </span></span><span style="font-family:Arial, sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333">the selection of Berkeley Lab as the lead laboratory for the DOE roles and responsibilities on CMB-S4, with Argonne National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory serving as partner labs. The CMB-S4 collaboration now numbers 236 members at 93 institutions in 14 countries and 21 U.S. states.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p style="text-align:start"><span style="font-size:small"><span style="color:#222222"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="background-color:#ffffff"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"><span style="background-image: initial;"><span style="background-position: initial;"><span style="background-size: initial;"><span style="background-repeat: initial;"><span style="background-origin: initial;"><span style="background-clip: initial;"><font face="Arial, sans-serif">The project passed its first DOE milestone, known as Critical Decision 0 or CD-0, on July 26, 2019. It has been endorsed by the</font><font face="Calibri, sans-serif"> </font></span></span></span></span></span></span></span><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.usparticlephysics.org/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1599746971487000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEb2tTV7tfVxBm39MHfLbIqMb67sQ" href="https://www.usparticlephysics.org/" style="font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; color: rgb(17, 85, 204);" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:Arial, sans-serif"><span style="background-image:initial"><span style="background-position:initial"><span style="background-size:initial"><span style="background-repeat:initial"><span style="background-origin:initial"><span style="background-clip:initial">2014 report</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="background-image:initial"><span style="background-position:initial"><span style="background-size:initial"><span style="background-repeat:initial"><span style="background-origin:initial"><span style="background-clip:initial"> of the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (known as P5), which helps to set the future direction of particle physics-related research. The project also was recommended in the National Academy of Sciences Strategic Vision for Antarctic Science in 2015, and by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee in 2017.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p><p> </p><div alt=" " data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="6141337d-482b-4842-b12b-778fc7a46595" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=JAVjoO9a 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=JAVjoO9a 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=JAVjoO9a 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=JAVjoO9a 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=JAVjoO9a 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=JAVjoO9a 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=JAVjoO9a 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=JAVjoO9a 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=g3cIAZRS 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=g3cIAZRS 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=g3cIAZRS 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=QnZGDLyo 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=QnZGDLyo 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=g3cIAZRS 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=GsTLUXJU 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=GsTLUXJU 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=GsTLUXJU 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/South-Pole-Telescope-Argonne.jpg?itok=yZBS0xwd" alt=" " typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>A view of the South Pole Telescope, one of the existing instruments at the South Pole site where CMB-S4 will be built. (Credit: Argonne National Laboratory)</em></p></div></article></div><p>CMB-S4 will also help to measure the mass of the neutrino; map the growth of matter clustering over time in the universe; shed new light on mysterious dark matter, which makes up most of the universe’s matter but hasn’t yet been directly observed, and dark energy, which is driving an accelerating expansion of the universe; and aid in the detection and study of powerful space phenomena such as gamma-ray bursts and jet-emitting blazars.</p><p>On Sept. 1, DOE Office of Science Director Chris Fall authorized the selection of Berkeley Lab as the lead laboratory for the DOE roles and responsibilities on CMB-S4, with Argonne National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory serving as partner labs. The CMB-S4 collaboration now numbers 236 members at 93 institutions in 14 countries and 21 U.S. states.</p><p>The project passed its first DOE milestone, known as Critical Decision 0 or CD-0, on July 26, 2019. It has been endorsed by the <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.usparticlephysics.org/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1599746971487000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEb2tTV7tfVxBm39MHfLbIqMb67sQ" href="https://www.usparticlephysics.org/" target="_blank">2014 report</a> of the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (known as P5), which helps to set the future direction of particle physics-related research. The project also was recommended in the National Academy of Sciences Strategic Vision for Antarctic Science in 2015, and by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee in 2017.</p><p>The NSF has been key to the development of CMB-S4, which builds on NSF’s existing program of university-led, ground-based CMB experiments. Four of these experiments – the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and POLARBEAR/Simons Array in Chile, and the South Pole Telescope and BICEP/Keck at the South Pole – helped to start CMB-S4 in 2013, and the design of CMB-S4 relies heavily on technologies developed and deployed by these teams and others. NSF is also helping to plan its possible future role with a grant awarded to the University of Chicago.</p><p>The CMB-S4 collaboration was established in 2018, and its current co-spokespeople are Julian Borrill, head of the Computational Cosmology Center at Berkeley Lab and a researcher at UC Berkeley’s Space Sciences Laboratory, and John Carlstrom, a professor of physics, astronomy, and astrophysics at the University of Chicago and scientist at Argonne Lab.</p><p>CMB-S4 builds on decades of experience with ground-based, satellite, and balloon-based experiments.</p><p>What’s unique about CMB-S4 is not the technology itself – the detector technology has already been proven in earlier experiments, for example – but the scale at which the technology will be deployed, including the sheer number of detectors, scale of the detector readout systems, number of telescopes, and volume of data to be processed.</p><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="e176d583-5448-41f8-b2aa-b6d11d881e4e" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=qrCpuA3n 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=qrCpuA3n 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=qrCpuA3n 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=qrCpuA3n 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=qrCpuA3n 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=qrCpuA3n 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=qrCpuA3n 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=qrCpuA3n 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=_if6c9eG 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=_if6c9eG 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=_if6c9eG 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=fz1BBKMB 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=fz1BBKMB 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=_if6c9eG 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=0r9YupFh 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=0r9YupFh 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=0r9YupFh 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/CMB2018-ESA-Planck.jpg?itok=VBxnkRI_" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>This map of the universe, released in 2018, shows temperature fluctuations in the microwave sky. (Credit: ESA, Planck collaboration)</em></p></div></article></div><p> </p><p>CMB-S4, which will exceed the capabilities of earlier generations of experiments by more than 10 times, will have the combined viewing power of three large telescopes and 18 small telescopes. The major technology challenge for CMB-S4 is in its scale. While previous generations of instruments have used tens of thousands of detectors, the entire CMB-S4 project will require half a million.</p><p> </p><blockquote><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="86a0d68f-c528-4dbd-990a-cc8872bb1ece" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=KSTT96kq 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=KSTT96kq 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=KSTT96kq 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=KSTT96kq 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=KSTT96kq 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=KSTT96kq 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=KSTT96kq 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=KSTT96kq 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=GojuWoj5 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=GojuWoj5 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=GojuWoj5 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=xFN8Y9xu 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=xFN8Y9xu 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=GojuWoj5 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=X48LzNuu 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=X48LzNuu 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=X48LzNuu 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/png"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/Prototype-Detector-Wafer-Berkeley.png?itok=MdCUrO5J" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>This prototype wafer, measuring about 5 inches across, with over 1,000 detectors, was made to test detector fabrication processes and detector quality for the CMB-S4 experiment. (Photo courtesy of Aritoki Suzuki/Berkeley Lab)</em></p></div></article></div></blockquote><p>The data-management challenges will be substantial, too, as these huge arrays of detectors will produce 1,000 times more data than the previous generation of experiments. A major hardware focus for the project will be the construction of new telescopes and the mass-fabrication of the detectors. The current detector design, adapted from current experiments, will feature over 500 silicon wafers that each contain 1,000 superconducting detectors.</p><p>CMB-S4 plans to draw upon computing resources at the <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.alcf.anl.gov/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1599746971487000&amp;usg=AFQjCNFBI70h4nTjV5T7Clvo7_IqUJY79A" href="https://www.alcf.anl.gov/" target="_blank">Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF)</a> and Berkeley Lab’s <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.nersc.gov/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1599746971487000&amp;usg=AFQjCNF96e7ZTUmXY4SpmrNHe0spvUFOIQ" href="http://www.nersc.gov/" target="_blank">National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)</a>, and to apply to NSF’s <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://opensciencegrid.org/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1599746971487000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGEsDKa9lDTpGz9C7UeREa4QOYs-A" href="https://opensciencegrid.org/" target="_blank">Open Science Grid</a> and <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.xsede.org/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1599746971487000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGQOkp-Crhf7XMpJrBexoPoyT_cJQ" href="https://www.xsede.org/" target="_blank">eXtreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE)</a>.</p><p>The project is hoping to deploy its first telescope in 2027, to be fully operational at all telescopes within a couple of years, and to run through 2035.</p><p>Next steps include preparing a project office at Berkeley Lab, getting ready for the next DOE milestone, known as Critical Decision 1, working toward becoming an NSF project, and working across the community to bring in the best expertise and capabilities.</p><p> ALCF and NERSC are DOE Office of Science user facilities.</p><p> ###</p><p>DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit <a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://energy.gov/science&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1599746971488000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGWPLq_Vz6jaJVGRl_O7DBoe994lw" href="https://energy.gov/science" target="_blank">energy.gov/science</a>.</p></div><div class="source"><div id="main" class="with-elements"><div class="hero"><div><div><div class="block-region-hero"><h1> Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory </h1></div></div></div></div><div class="main"><div class="main-top"><div class="block-region-maintop"><div class="header-image"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=UAEmK6cw 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=UAEmK6cw 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=UAEmK6cw 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=UAEmK6cw 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=UAEmK6cw 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=UAEmK6cw 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=UAEmK6cw 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=UAEmK6cw 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=69gXc47Y 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=69gXc47Y 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=69gXc47Y 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=xKIWM28z 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=xKIWM28z 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=69gXc47Y 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=TqpUKAXX 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=TqpUKAXX 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=TqpUKAXX 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"/><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/LB0043H.jpg?itok=rM4OMvEP" alt="Shielding blocks removed exposing the Bevatron. (Courtesy: Lawrence Berkeley National Lab)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p>Shielding blocks removed exposing the Bevatron. (Courtesy: Lawrence Berkeley National Lab)</p></div></article></div></div></div><div class="element"><div class="block-region-main"><div class="institution-body"><p>In the world of science, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is synonymous with “excellence.” Thirteen Nobel prizes are associated with Berkeley Lab. Seventy Lab scientists are members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Thirteen of our scientists have won the National Medal of Science, our nation’s highest award for lifetime achievement in fields of scientific research. Eighteen of our engineers have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, and three of our scientists have been elected into the Institute of Medicine. In addition, Berkeley Lab has trained thousands of university science and engineering students who are advancing technological innovations across the nation and around the world.</p><p>Berkeley Lab is a multidisciplinary national laboratory located in Berkeley, California on a hillside directly above the campus of the University of California at Berkeley. The site consists of 76 buildings located on 183 acres, which overlook both the campus and the San Francisco Bay.</p></div><div class="institution-address"><label>Address</label><p class="address" translate="no"><span class="address-line1">1 Cyclotron Road</span><br><span class="locality">Berkeley</span>, <span class="administrative-area">CA</span><span class="postal-code">94720</span><br><span class="country">United States</span></p></div><p class="phone"> 510-486-4000 </p><a href="http://www.lbl.gov/" target="_blank">http://www.lbl.gov/</a><div class="institution-contactinfo"><label>Contact Info</label><p>Glenn Roberts Jr.,<br /> Public Affairs, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory<br /><a href="mailto:geroberts@lbl.gov" target="_blank">geroberts@lbl.gov</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<br /><a data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?hl=en&amp;q=http://newscenter.lbl.gov/&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1470843500562000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGdHmcUWK1oUeX-OQdifXOq7qNgDQ" href="http://newscenter.lbl.gov/" target="_blank">http://newscenter.lbl.gov/</a></p></div><div class="institution-links"><label>Links</label><ul class="links"><li><a href="http://twitter.com/BerkeleyLab" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">http://twitter.com/BerkeleyLab</a></li><li><a href="http://instagram.com/berkeleylab" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">http://instagram.com/berkeleylab</a></li><li><a href="http://www.facebook.com/BerkeleyLab" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">http://www.facebook.com/BerkeleyLab</a></li><li><a href="http://www.youtube.com/user/BerkeleyLab" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/user/BerkeleyLab</a></li></ul></div></div></div></div></div> Wed, 09 Sep 2020 14:09:59 +0000 xeno 14997 at https://www.interactions.org Rare phenomenon observed by ATLAS features the LHC as a high-energy photon collider https://www.interactions.org/press-release/rare-phenomenon-observed-atlas-features-lhc-high-energy Rare phenomenon observed by ATLAS features the LHC as a high-energy photon colliderPress Release<span><span lang="" about="/users/xeno" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">xeno</span></span> Wed, 08/05/2020 - 09:443320<div class="pr-body"><h2>The ATLAS experiment reports the observation of photon collisions producing weak-force carriers and provides further insights into their interactions.</h2><div data-embed-button="media_browser" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_entity_view" data-entity-embed-display-settings="default" data-entity-type="media" data-entity-uuid="4ff97914-c897-426f-833f-1097b66886d4" data-langcode="en" class="embedded-entity align-center"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=f5lVKvYG 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=f5lVKvYG 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=f5lVKvYG 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=f5lVKvYG 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=f5lVKvYG 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=f5lVKvYG 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=f5lVKvYG 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=f5lVKvYG 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=s9lQ15YR 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=s9lQ15YR 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=s9lQ15YR 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=enMfla5J 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=enMfla5J 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=s9lQ15YR 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/png"></source><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=rFBCcPQP 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=rFBCcPQP 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=rFBCcPQP 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/png"></source><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/ATLAS_yyWW_eventdisplay.png?itok=BZbRfO1c" alt="" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture><div class="caption"><p><em>A 2018 ATLAS event display consistent with the production of a pair of W bosons from two photons, and the subsequent decay of the W bosons into a muon and an electron (visible in the detector) and neutrinos (not detected). (Image: CERN)</em></p></div></article></div><p>During the International Conference on High-Energy Physics (<a href="https://ichep2020.org/">ICHEP 2020</a>), the ATLAS collaboration presented the first observation of photon collisions producing pairs of W bosons, elementary particles that carry the weak force, one of the four fundamental forces. The result demonstrates a new way of using the LHC, namely as a high-energy photon collider directly probing electroweak interactions. It confirms one of the main predictions of electroweak theory – that force carriers can interact with themselves – and provides new ways to probe it.</p><p>According to the laws of classical electrodynamics, two intersecting light beams would not deflect, absorb or disrupt one another. However, effects of <em>quantum electrodynamics </em>(QED), the theory that explains how light and matter interact, allow interactions among photons.</p><p>Indeed, it is not the first time that photons interacting at high energies have been studied at the LHC. For instance, light-by-light “scattering”, where a pair of photons interact by producing another pair of photons, is one of the oldest predictions of QED. The <a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/press-statement/atlas-sees-first-direct-evidence-light-light-scattering-high-energy">first direct evidence of light-by-light scattering was reported by ATLAS in 2017</a>, exploiting the strong electromagnetic fields surrounding lead ions in high-energy lead–lead collisions. In 2019 and 2020, ATLAS further studied this process by measuring its properties.</p><p><span id="r1">The new result reported at this conference is sensitive to another rare phenomenon in which two photons interact to produce two W bosons of opposite electric charge via (among others) the interaction of four force carriers<sup><a href="#f1">[1]</a></sup></span>. Quasi-real photons from the proton beams scatter off one another to produce a pair of W bosons. A first study of this phenomenon was previously reported by ATLAS and CMS in 2016, from data recorded during LHC Run 1, but a larger dataset was required to unambiguously observe it.</p><p>The observation was obtained with a highly significant statistical evidence of 8.4 standard deviations, corresponding to a negligible chance of being due to a statistical fluctuation. ATLAS physicists used a considerably larger dataset taken during Run 2, the four-year data collection in the LHC that ended in 2018, and developed a customised analysis method.</p><p>Owing to the nature of the interaction process, the only particle tracks visible in the central detector are the decay products of the two W bosons, an electron and a muon with opposite electric charge. W-boson pairs can also be directly produced from interactions between quarks and gluons in the colliding protons considerably more often than from photon–photon interactions, but these are accompanied by additional tracks from strong interaction processes. This means that the ATLAS physicists had to carefully disentangle collision tracks to observe this rare phenomenon.   </p><blockquote><p>"This observation opens up a new facet of experimental exploration at the LHC using photons in the initial state”, said Karl Jakobs, spokesperson of the ATLAS collaboration. “It is unique as it only involves couplings among electroweak force carriers in the strong-interaction-dominated environment of the LHC. With larger future datasets it can be used to probe in a clean way the electroweak gauge structure and possible contributions of new physics."</p></blockquote><p>Indeed, the new result confirms one of the main predictions of electroweak theory, namely that, besides interacting with ordinary particles of matter, the force carriers, also known as gauge bosons – the W bosons, the Z boson and the photon – are also interacting with each other. Photon collisions will provide a new way to test the Standard Model and to probe for new physics, which is necessary for a better understanding of our Universe.</p><p>Links, related articles &amp; scientific material:</p><ul><li><a href="https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/CONFNOTES/ATLAS-CONF-2020-038/ATLAS-CONF-2020-038.pdf">Observation of photon-induced W+W− production in proton–proton collisions at 13 TeV using the ATLAS detector</a></li><li><a href="https://atlas.cern/updates/physics-briefing/observation-w-pair-from-light">ATLAS Physics briefing on the result</a></li><li><a href="https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/CONFNOTES/ATLAS-CONF-2020-038/">Scientific Plots and Diagrams</a></li></ul><hr /><p><span id="f1"><sup><a href="#r1">[1]</a></sup>  </span>The four force-carrier interaction is one of the predictions of the electroweak theory that explains how force-carrier particles, also known as gauge bosons, interact not only with matter particles, but also with one another.</p></div><div class="source"><div id="main" class="with-elements"><div class="hero"><div><div><div class="block-region-hero"><h1> CERN </h1></div></div></div></div><div class="main"><div class="main-top"><div class="block-region-maintop"><div class="header-image"><article><picture><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=i4y7jClR 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=i4y7jClR 1.5x" media="all and (min-width: 1200px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=i4y7jClR 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=i4y7jClR 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=i4y7jClR 2x" media="all and (min-width: 992px) and (max-width: 1199px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=i4y7jClR 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=i4y7jClR 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=i4y7jClR 2x" media="all and (min-width: 798px) and (max-width: 991px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=gnSwgRzV 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=gnSwgRzV 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=gnSwgRzV 2x" media="all and (min-width: 601px) and (max-width: 797px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=cdbrdgUL 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet_portrait/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=cdbrdgUL 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_tablet/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=gnSwgRzV 2x" media="all and (min-width: 400px) and (max-width: 600px)" type="image/jpeg"/><source srcset="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=advvM5vJ 1x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=advvM5vJ 1.5x, /sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_large_phone/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=advvM5vJ 2x" media="all and (max-width: 399px)" type="image/jpeg"/><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_responsive_small_phone/public/CE0305H.jpg?itok=NL3pbbax" alt="Joe Incandela, CERN spokesperson for Higgs Boson search update (Courtesy: Maximilien Brice, Laurent Egli)" typeof="foaf:Image" /></picture></article></div></div></div><div class="element"><div class="block-region-main"><div class="institution-body"><p>At CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, physicists and engineers are probing the fundamental structure of the universe. They use the world's largest and most complex scientific instruments to study the basic constituents of matter – the fundamental particles. The particles are made to collide together at close to the speed of light. The process gives the physicists clues about how the particles interact, and provides insights into the fundamental laws of nature.</p></div><div class="institution-body"><p><strong>Contact information</strong><br /> European Organization for Nuclear Research<br /> CERN<br /> CH-1211 Genève 23<br /> Switzerland<br /><br /> or<br /><br /> Organisation Européenne pour<br /> la Recherche Nucléaire<br /> F-01631 CERN Cedex<br /> France<br /> + 41 22 76 761 11<br /> + 41 22 76 765 55 (fax)<br /> &nbsp;</p></div><a href="https://home.cern/" target="_blank">https://home.cern/</a><div class="institution-contactinfo"><label>Contact Info</label><p><a href="https://press.cern/" target="_blank">Press Office</a><br /><br /><a href="mailto:press@cern.ch">Press@cern.ch</a><br /> +41 22 767 34 32<br /> +41 22 767 21 41</p><p>&nbsp;</p></div><div class="institution-links"><label>Links</label><ul class="links"><li><a href="http://www.youtube.com/user/CERNTV" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">YouTube</a></li><li><a href="http://twitter.com/cern/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Twitter</a></li><li><a href="http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/About/Global-en.html" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Funding</a></li></ul></div></div></div></div></div> Wed, 05 Aug 2020 14:44:57 +0000 xeno 14984 at https://www.interactions.org ICFA announces a new phase towards preparation for the International Linear Collider https://www.interactions.org/press-release/icfa-announces-new-phase-towards-preparation-international ICFA announces a new phase towards preparation for the International Linear ColliderPress Release<span><span lang="" about="/users/xeno" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">xeno</span></span> Tue, 08/04/2020 - 08:063220<div class="pr-body"><p>At its 86th meeting held on 2nd August, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) approved the formation of the International Linear Collider (ILC) International Development Team as the first step towards the preparatory phase of the ILC project, with a mandate to make preparations for the ILC Pre-Lab in Japan.</p><p>In its <a href="https://icfa.fnal.gov/wp-content/uploads/ICFA_Statement_22Feb2020.pdf">Statement on February 22nd 2020</a> , ICFA stated that “ICFA advocates establishment of an international development team to facilitate transition into the preparatory phase” for the construction of the ILC in Japan and asked the Linear Collider Board (LCB) to work out a proposal for the transition team.&nbsp;</p><p><a href="https://icfa.fnal.gov/wp-content/uploads/ICFA_release_of_ILC_IDT_Proposal.pdf">Following the proposal by LCB</a>&nbsp;as the first step towards the preparatory phase of the ILC project, ICFA established the ILC International Development Team. This document elaborates the terms of reference of the Team. The Team replaced the LCB/LCC organization, whose mandate ended on June 30th 2020.</p><p>The Team will commence its work immediately and is expected to complete it by the end of 2021. The ILC International Development Team will work towards making a timely realization of the ILC possible.</p><p><a href="https://icfa.fnal.gov/wp-content/uploads/ICFA_Statement_August_2020.pdf">Full text of announcement</a></p><p><br /><em><strong>About ICFA</strong></em></p><p>ICFA, the International Committee for Future Accelerators, was created to facilitate international collaboration in the planning, construction and use of accelerators for high energy physics. The Committee has 16&nbsp;members, selected primarily from the regions most deeply involved in high-energy physics.</p><p><em><strong>About the ILC</strong></em></p><p>The Linear Collider Collaboration (LCC) is an international endeavour that brings together about 2400 scientists and engineers from more than 300 universities and laboratories in 49 countries and regions. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will accelerate and collide electrons and their anti-particles, positrons. Superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they collide in the detectors at the centre of the machine. At the height of operation, bunches of electrons and positrons will collide roughly 7,000 times per second at a total collision energy of 250 GeV, creating a surge of new particles that are tracked and registered in the ILCʼs detectors. Each bunch will contain 20 billion electrons or positrons concentrated into an area much smaller than that of a human hair.</p><p>This means a very high rate of collisions. This high “luminosity”, when combined with the very precise interaction of two point-like colliding particles that annihilate each other, will allow the ILC to deliver a wealth of data to scientists that will allow the properties of particles, such as the Higgs boson, recently discovered at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, to be measured precisely. It could also shed light on new areas of physics such as dark matter.</p><p><strong>SOURCE:</strong></p><p>International Committee for Future Accelerators</p><p><strong>CONTENT:</strong></p><p>Press Release</p><p><strong>CONTACT:</strong></p><p>KEK Press Office, KEK, Japan<br /><a href="mailto:press@kek.jp">press@kek.jp</a></p></div><div class="source"><div id="main" class="with-elements"><div class="hero"><div><div><div class="block-region-hero"><h1> International Committee for Future Accelerators </h1></div></div></div></div><div class="main"><div class="main-top"><div class="block-region-maintop"></div></div><div class="element"><div class="block-region-main"><div class="institution-contactinfo"><label>Contact Info</label><p>Linear Collider Communicators (communicators@linearcollider.org):</p><p>KEK Press Office, KEK, Japan, press@kek.jp</p></div></div></div></div></div></div> Tue, 04 Aug 2020 13:06:18 +0000 xeno 14982 at https://www.interactions.org